Adaptive Sports

Sit-Down Volleyball Fact Sheet

Explosive competition

  • Two teams of 6
  • Teams separated by a net
  • Ground the ball on the opposing side to score a point
  • Low net
  • Seated positions
  • Smaller court dimensions
  • Athletes pelvis must remain seated on ground
  • Service blocks and attacks are allowed
  • Best of five set formats
  • First to reach 25-point (must have 2 point lead) wins
  • Two medal events at Rio Paralympics
  • 192 athletes

Playing Area

  • Dimensions = 10x6m w/ a free zone = 3m on all sides and 7m in height
  • Playing surface = flat horizontal and uniform
  • Line on the court = Center line divides the court into two 6x5m equal courts each
  • Attack line – drawn 2 m back from center line

Zones and Areas

  • Front zone – center time to the attack line, extending out beyond side boundaries
  • Service zone – 6m wide area behind each end line extends past the lateral sidelines
  • Sub zone – scorer’s table
  • Libero replacement zone – side of team benches
  • Penalty area – 1x1 m; equipped with two chairs

Nets and Posts

  • Placed over the center line
  • Top height of 1.15 for men and 1.05 for women
  • Measured from the center line
  • Structure – 0.80m wide and 7 meters long w/ 25 to 50cm on each side


  • Flexible leather, spherical rubber bladder
  • Circumference is 65-67 cm
  • Weight is 260-280 g
  • Inside pressure should be 0.3 to 0.325 kg/cm2 or 4.26 to 4.61 psi (same thing)


  • 12 players max
  • One coach and two assistant coaches
  • One team therapist and one medical doctor
  • One team captain


  • Point – a team scores a point by successfully grounding a ball on the opponens playing court, when opposing team commits a fault, when the opposing team commits a penalty
  • Fault – action contrary to the rules, double faults result in replay of the previous rally
  • Rally – a sequence of events; Service, hit, hit, attack, point
  • Completed rally – when a point is scored; including the award of a penalty, loss of service hit after the service clock
  • If the service team win a rally, they receive a point and get the serve
  • If the receiving team wins a rally, they receive a point and serve the next service
  • Win a set – reach 25 points, win by 2 points
  • Win the match – best of 5 sets; in a 2set to 2set match, the last set is played to 15 points


  • 3 players in front of the net (4,3,2)
  • Must be positioned laterally in order – 4 (front left), 3 (middle), 2 (front right)
  • 3 players in the back row (5,6,1)
  • Must be positioned further back than the center line
  • Position is determined by the placement of the persons buttocks on the floor
  • Position fault – when a person is not at his/ her position by the time a serve is committed, illegal substitution. Is outweighed by a service fault. Team become sanctioned with a point and service to the opponent, player positions are rectified
  • Rotation – Move 1 position clockwise: position 2 à position 1 à position 6 à 5 à 4 à 3
  • Rotational fault – grants the opposing team a point and next service

Playing the ball

  • Hit – any contact with the ball and a player in play
  • 3 hits max for returning the ball
  • Consecutive contacts by one player are not allowed
  • Simultaneous contacts are allowed - # of players = # of hits counted
  • Blocking & consecutive contacts- After a block the player can bump the ball back up only counting one hit
  • Lifting – hitting fault where the player buttocks is lifted off the ground

Ball at the net

  • Ball may touch the net when crossing
  • Ball driven into the net may be recovered within the team’s allowance of hits

Player at the net

  • A player may block the ball beyond the net, a player may not touch the net when blocking
  • Faults at the Net – When touching the net, posts, antennae, our going under the net results in an interruption a play


  • Must follow service order
  • Screening – blocking opposing team from seeing the server, is not allowed
  • Faults – violation of service order, improper service execution, lifts butt, failure to cross vertical plane without touching a teammate, goes out of bounds, passes over a screen

Attack hit

  • All hits where the direction of the ball is towards the opposing team
  • Service attacks are permitted
  • Front row players must complete attack hits at any height
  • Back row players must complete an attack hit at any height from behind the front zone
  • Buttocks must stay grounded
  • Faults of an attack hit – ball goes out, back row player completes and attack hit from the front zone, buttock lifted


  • Any action with goals to intercept the opposing attack hit
  • Block attempt – attempt without touching the ball
  • Completed block – whenever the ball is touched by the blocker
  • Collective block – executed by 2 or 3 players